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Hannibal at the gates.Hannibal at the Gates

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Mar 27,  · Hannibal at the Gates adds two new Historical Battles: the Battle of Cannae (BC) and the Battle of Zama (BC). Both battles marked key points in the 2nd Punic War, with Cannae representing the high point of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy, and Zama marking the completion of Rome’s victory and dominance over Carthage/5(5). Aug 20,  · Storyline. As they come towards the end of their epic journey, the Wood brothers make a sacrifice to the gods at Lake Averno, come face to face with Hannibal in Rome and cross the Mediterranean to Tunisia, once the centre of the Carthaginian Empire, where they visit the site where the fate of an entire civilisation was decided in one final : Danny Wood, Sam Wood, Ben Wood. Mar 12,  · Hannibal at the gates: Cyberwarfare & the Solarwinds sunburst hack. Hannibal at the gates.: Cyberwarfare & the Solarwinds sunburst hack. Pratim Datta, College of Business, Kent State University, Kent, OH , USA. Email: [email protected]: Pratim Datta, Pratim Datta.

 

Hannibal at the gates.Hannibal – Wikipedia

News for Black America. Hannibal is at the Gate is an Alternative media source for black americans. Informative podcasts and editorials. Mar 12,  · Hannibal at the gates: Cyberwarfare & the Solarwinds sunburst hack. Hannibal at the gates.: Cyberwarfare & the Solarwinds sunburst hack. Pratim Datta, College of Business, Kent State University, Kent, OH , USA. Email: [email protected]: Pratim Datta, Pratim Datta. Oct 14,  · Hannibal at the Gates Hannibal had not been able to engage the Romans in battle since Cannae despite several attempts and the situation in Capua was getting desperate. Due to this Hannibal decided to roll the dice and, march to Rome, finally.
 
 
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He is widely considered to be one of the greatest military commanders in human history. His younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal , and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair , who also commanded Carthaginian armies. Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin , triggered by the emergence of the Roman Republic as a great power after it had established its supremacy over Italy.

Although Rome had won the First Punic War , revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father never to be a friend of Rome. He then made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his North African war elephants.

In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia , Lake Trasimene , and Cannae , the latter of which is considered one of the greatest tactical feats in military history.

He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent’s respective strengths and weaknesses, and to plan battles accordingly. Hannibal’s well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer several Italian cities allied to Rome. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, but could not win a decisive victory, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation with him, instead waging a war of attrition.

Scipio eventually defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama , having previously driven Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula. After the war, Hannibal successfully ran for the office of sufet. He enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome; however, those reforms were unpopular with members of the Carthaginian aristocracy and in Rome, and he fled into voluntary exile.

During this time, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III the Great in his war against Rome. Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome’s terms, and Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia. His flight ended in the court of Bithynia. He was betrayed to the Romans and committed suicide by poisoning himself. Hannibal is often regarded as one of the greatest military tacticians in history and one of the greatest generals of Mediterranean antiquity, together with Philip of Macedon , Alexander the Great , Julius Caesar , Scipio Africanus and Pyrrhus.

Plutarch states that Scipio supposedly asked Hannibal “who the greatest general was”, to which Hannibal replied “either Alexander or Pyrrhus, then himself”. Hannibal was a common Carthaginian personal name. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal lit. Its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. The Carthaginians did not use hereditary surnames, but typically were distinguished from others bearing the same name using patronymics or epithets.

Although he is by far the most famous Hannibal, when further clarification is necessary he is usually referred to as “Hannibal, son of Hamilcar”, or Hannibal the Barcid, the latter term applying to the family of his father, Hamilcar Barca.

Hannibal was one of the sons of Hamilcar Barca , a Carthaginian leader. He was born in what is present day northern Tunisia, one of many Mediterranean regions colonised by the Canaanites from their homelands in Phoenicia. He had several sisters and two brothers, Hasdrubal and Mago. His brothers-in-law were Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian king Naravas.

He was still a child when his sisters married, and his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father’s struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. With that in mind and supported by Gades , Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state that it lacked a navy able to transport his army; instead, Hamilcar had to march his forces across Numidia towards the Pillars of Hercules and then cross the Strait of Gibraltar.

According to Polybius , Hannibal much later said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and demanded that he swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of Rome.

There is even an account of him at a very young age 9 years old begging his father to take him to an overseas war. In the story, Hannibal’s father took him up and brought him to a sacrificial chamber.

Hamilcar held Hannibal over the fire roaring in the chamber and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome. Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, “I swear so soon as age will permit I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome. Hannibal’s father went about the conquest of Hispania. When his father drowned [16] in battle, Hannibal’s brother-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair succeeded to his command of the army with Hannibal then 18 years old serving as an officer under him.

Hasdrubal pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage’s Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebro so long as Rome did not expand south of it. Upon the assassination of Hasdrubal in BC, Hannibal now 26 years old was proclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian government.

The Roman scholar Livy gives a depiction of the young Carthaginian: “No sooner had he arrived Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command[. Livy also records that Hannibal married a woman of Castulo , a powerful Spanish city closely allied with Carthage. After he assumed command, Hannibal spent two years consolidating his holdings and completing the conquest of Hispania, south of the Ebro.

His following campaign in BC was against the Vaccaei to the west, where he stormed the Vaccaen strongholds of Helmantice and Arbucala. On his return home, laden with many spoils, a coalition of Spanish tribes, led by the Carpetani , attacked, and Hannibal won his first major battlefield success and showed off his tactical skills at the battle of the River Tagus.

Hannibal not only perceived this as a breach of the treaty signed with Hasdrubal, but as he was already planning an attack on Rome, this was his way to start the war.

So he laid siege to the city, which fell after eight months. Hannibal sent the booty from Saguntum to Carthage, a shrewd move which gained him much support from the government; Livy records that only Hanno II the Great spoke against him. The Carthaginian Senate responded with legal arguments observing the lack of ratification by either government for the treaty alleged to have been violated.

Fabius chose war. This journey was originally planned by Hannibal’s brother-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair, who became a Carthaginian general in the Iberian Peninsula in BC. He maintained this post for eight years until BC.

The Celts were amassing forces to invade farther south in Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing. Therefore, the Romans preemptively invaded the Po region in BC. It seems that the Romans lulled themselves into a false sense of security, having dealt with the threat of a Gallo-Carthaginian invasion, and perhaps knowing that the original Carthaginian commander had been killed.

He left a detachment of 20, troops to garrison the newly conquered region. At the Pyrenees, he released 11, Iberian troops who showed reluctance to leave their homeland.

Hannibal reportedly entered Gaul with 40, foot soldiers and 12, horsemen. Hannibal recognized that he still needed to cross the Pyrenees, the Alps, and many significant rivers. Hannibal’s army numbered 38, infantry, 8, cavalry, and 38 elephants, almost none of which would survive the harsh conditions of the Alps. His exact route over the Alps has been the source of scholarly dispute ever since Polybius, the surviving ancient account closest in time to Hannibal’s campaign, reports that the route was already debated.

Hunt responds to this by proposing that Hannibal’s Celtic guides purposefully misguided the Carthaginian general. Most recently, W. Mahaney has argued Col de la Traversette closest fits the records of ancient authors. Mahaney et al. De Beer was one of only three interpreters — the others being John Lazenby and Jakob Seibert — to have visited all the Alpine high passes and presented a view on which was most plausible.

Both De Beer and Siebert had selected the Col de la Traversette as the one most closely matching the ancient descriptions. It is moreover the most southerly, as Varro in his De re rustica relates, agreeing that Hannibal’s Pass was the highest in Western Alps and the most southerly. By Livy’s account, the crossing was accomplished in the face of huge difficulties. The fired rockfall event is mentioned only by Livy; Polybius is mute on the subject and there is no evidence [42] of carbonized rock at the only two-tier rockfall in the Western Alps, located below the Col de la Traversette Mahaney, Historians such as Serge Lancel have questioned the reliability of the figures for the number of troops that he had when he left Hispania.

Hannibal’s vision of military affairs was derived partly from the teaching of his Greek tutors and partly from experience gained alongside his father, and it stretched over most of the Hellenistic World of his time. Indeed, the breadth of his vision gave rise to his grand strategy of conquering Rome by opening a northern front and subduing allied city-states on the peninsula, rather than by attacking Rome directly. Historical events which led to the defeat of Carthage during the First Punic War when his father commanded the Carthaginian Army also led Hannibal to plan the invasion of Italy by land across the Alps.

The task was daunting, to say the least. It involved the mobilization of between 60, and , troops and the training of a war-elephant corps, all of which had to be provisioned along the way.

The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of BC with repercussions for more than two decades. Hannibal’s perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground.

His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the Romans could take steps to check the rebellion. Publius Cornelius Scipio was the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal he was also the father of Scipio Africanus.

He had not expected Hannibal to make an attempt to cross the Alps, since the Romans were prepared to fight the war in the Iberian Peninsula. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal.

He succeeded, through prompt decision and speedy movement, in transporting his army to Italy by sea in time to meet Hannibal. Hannibal’s forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in the Battle of Ticinus.

Here, Hannibal forced the Romans to evacuate the plain of Lombardy , by virtue of his superior cavalry. Their troops bolstered his army back to around 40, men. Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father. Scipio retreated across the Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army mostly intact. The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley.

Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the Senate had ordered Consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal. Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march to reinforce Scipio.

He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of supplies for his men. But this gain was not without loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal’s watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia.

There Hannibal had an opportunity to show his masterful military skill at the Trebia in December of the same year, after wearing down the superior Roman infantry, when he cut it to pieces with a surprise attack and ambush from the flanks. Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him had abated.

In the spring of BC, Hannibal decided to find a more reliable base of operations farther south. Gnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius the new consuls of Rome were expecting Hannibal to advance on Rome, and they took their armies to block the eastern and western routes that Hannibal could use.

The only alternative route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno.